I have been thinking a lot about customer support over the past two years. My role as “Director of Evangelism” has placed me at the leading edge of what could be referred to as “customer success” or “user education.” What I have come to appreciate, especially in Enterprise-focused startup companies, is the connected and complimentary roles between Product, Engineering, Quality, Evangelism, Customer Support, and Sales. In an Enterprise-focused organization what defines the success for each of these groups is fundamentally the same, but they are not all equally “connected” to the customer’s feedback and concerns.

My mental model is one of a line spiraling outward from the customer. The Account Executive should have the highest understanding of what that particular customer needs and wants. Moving outward, the Support team should have a fairly good understanding of that customer’s initiatives over time, their stumbling blocks, and so on. Further away from a discrete customer, Evangelism/Marketing/Advocacy should understand the general problem domains that these “types” or “personas” of customers are facing, in order to tailor education or marketing content to help inform them. Perhaps furthest out from a single customer, Product and Engineering must understand classes of problems faced by types of customers, and devise solutions therefore. This of course is not to say that Product and Engineering should be ignorant to the needs of customers, but in order for a Software Business to scale, they may necessarily focus less on individual customers’ needs and instead try to create generalized solutions to problem domains.

Each of the four companies I have worked at thus far had Customer Support in some form or fashion, but only at the last two, those which turned their focus more towards Enterprises, have I noticed patterns of “escalations” into the Engineering teams. Escalations in Support, like those in Operations, are the passing of tickets which require either more expertise, more authority, or a larger response than the previous level of responsibility.

Suffice it to say, Support looks really a lot like an Operations team to me. Looks like an Ops, complains like an Ops, drinks like an Ops, must be an Ops!

What tends to happen in Operations teams with regards to escalations is that sometimes an incident requires custom knowledge by the person who is responsible for the application to resolve. Those weird, yet-to-be-documented, behaviors from an application which go bump in the night and degrade service. When these things happen, typically somebody from Engineering is looped into the discussion, some developer who is not accustomed to their phone ringing in the night will sleepily answer only to be barraged with trivia about code they have written. In high-performing and mature organizations, typically the next day or whenever the incident has been resolved, people want to have retrospectives. They want to perform a root-cause analysis and fix the root cause so that next time they can sleep off their future hangovers in peace and quiet.

From my observations of Enterprise support, something eerily similar to the first part tends to occur. Somewhere between a customer’s infrastructure and our software, something goes wrong, or a weird yet-unknown use-case crops up which is not well supported by our software, and causes grief for a customer. Even the most stellar of Support teams will eventually need to escalate to Engineering, if for no other reason than to ask “what the hell is supposed to happen here?”

While I plead ignorance of what goes for best practices in Customer or Technical Support circles, I wonder what would happen if we treated every single escalation into Engineering like a “production outage?”

If the Support team is unable to resolve an issue for a customer, in the strictest terms, to me that is either: an education problem to resolve within the Support team or a bug.

The first option is easy to resolve, training, documentation, more mentorship are all easily within reach for the savvy organization. The second one is a very difficult pill to swallow, and where treating an escalation as an outage offers the most rewards.

“The customer has done something wrong and this is a self-inflicted problem.”

Bug. The software should not allow the customer to get into broken states.

“But the customer is using the software incorrectly!”

Bug. If the software cannot be easily used properly, then the design and user experience are broken.

“But the customer applied local scripts and hacks, we cannot support those!”

Bug! If a customer has to further extend the software in order to make it useful, then perhaps we’re not solving the problems for the customer we thought we were.

Perhaps my favorite part of the Outage Retrospective or Post-Incident Analysis is that it forces an organization to pause and reflect on whether it is successfully delivering the solutions it portends to deliver. Like an NTSB Accident Report, walking an incident back, chronicling all the missed opportunities for remediation, documenting the numerous fail-safes which didn’t help, and so on, when applied well can only lead to better software, a stronger organization, and more satisfied customers.

I don’t really know whether this is already done inside in some form within organizations, including my own. I do know, however, that treating failures not as inevitabilities but as opportunities to improve, is the only sure path forward.

The fastest possible resolution for a customer support ticket, is to prevent it from ever needing to be filed.