To ignore Node.js as a possibility in certain problem domains, for which it is the best tool for the job, is a tremendously silly and at times unprofessional decision. While I don’t delight in writing JavaScript, I must acknowledge that JavaScript has matured quite nicely over the past ten years. Perhaps the most helpful addition, for me at least, are the async and await keywords which aim to prevent the callback nightmare many casual JavaScript developers may dread.

Particularly for Node applications, callbacks provided a mechanism through which highly event-driven code could be executed. Inside the runtime, this generally means the execution thread can defer certain slow operations, such as timers or network I/O, until the timer fires or the socket’s buffer has data available for the application. All the while, executing other “work” within the application. I was first introduced to this cooperative multitasking approach over a decade ago, via “greenlets” in Python, the tools and libraries I used were hacks on top of CPython, and never caught any significant adoption. Node, however, is “just JavaScript” which practically every web application must maintain some familiarity with anyways. This allowed Node to enter a niche, which Go would later intrude upon, of lightweight and high-connection-count services.

Unfortunately, callback-oriented code is fairly difficult to read and understand as it’s execution-flow cannot be read linearly by scrolling down in the text editor. For this reason, in my opinion, the async and await syntax sugar is so valuable in JavaScript. Borrowing from, callback-oriented code such as:

function foo(onSuccess) {
  var request = new XMLHttpRequest();'GET', '', true);

  request.onload = function() {
    if (request.status >= 200 && request.status < 400) {
      var data = JSON.parse(request.responseText);


Can be re-written as:

async function foo() {
  const response = await fetch('');
  const parsedResponse = await response.json();

This is all well and good, but only works because the APIs underneath, e.g. fetch, have been introduced to support it. For the unfortunate developer (read: me) who must work with the legacy “callback-oriented” APIs, it might not be obvious how to use async and await in an application which must integrate with callback-driven libraries.

While banging my head against this problem I learned that JavaScript engines introduced the Promise API, which was somehow related, but it was never succinctly clear how.

What I found so terribly confusing was: I had always seen the async and await keywords used together but never with a callback-oriented API.

It helps to tease the two apart, and explain them separately:

async: should be used with a function declaration to denote that it can be deferred and will, in effect, implicitly return a Promise.

await: should be used to block a sequential flow of execution until a Promise can be resolved. await cannot be used unless the function containing it is marked async.

Let’s say I want to take a function, which currently uses callbacks, and incorporate it into the rest of my async/await application. The trick, it turns out, is to wrap it with a Promise:

function sendMessage(payload) {
    return new Promise((resolveFunction, rejectFunction) => {
        clientAPI.send(payload, (error, response) => {
            /* in the callback */

            /* if there was an error, invoke the `reject` function as part of
               the Promise API. */
            if (error) { rejectFunction(error); }

            /* if there was a response, inoke the `resolve` function as part of
               the Promise API */

This sendMessage function can then be used in other async type functions, e.g.:

async function notifyBroker() {
    let response = await sendMessage({ping: true});
    /* do something with `response` */

This doesn’t completely change the writing of JavaScript to a sequential model, the top-level invocation of this function must treat it as a Promise, e.g.: notifyBroker().then(() => { /* callback when notifyBroker() completes */ });

It does, however, make it a lot easier to author non-blocking code without a descent into callback hell.