For Jenkins, the plugin ecosystem is one of its key advantages over other tools offering some similar functionality. That power and flexibility does not come without its own set of problems for the project itself. From an outsiders perspective, the challenges around dependency and update management between Jenkins plugins is a substantial topic, worthy of at least a couple of doctoral theses in computer science and sociology respectively. For insiders within the Jenkins developer community, the relations between plugins in the ecosystem makes a bizarre kind of sense. Like the tax code, it’s something you figure out how to work within, but never dare dig in too deeply, for fear of your head exploding. In this blog post, I’d like to share my philosophy on how we, the Jenkins project, should think about plugin dependencies and how that contrasts to the status quo.

Note: This may be a bit of “inside baseball” related to the Jenkins Evergreen effort which I have blogged about previously.

How Jenkins plugin dependencies work

Jenkins plugins are primarily written in Java and use Apache Maven to define their dependencies and build process. By way of an example, imagine you were building a Taco Cat plugin which depended on the git-client plugin’s APIs and functionality. In order to even compile your plugin referencing APIs provided by git-client, the pom.xml for your plugin would need to specify the git-client plugin as a dependency.

Of course this build-time dependency implies a run-time dependency. When the Taco Cat plugin you are developing is actually running in a Jenkins master’s JVM, it needs to invoke functionality provided by the git-client plugin. Since the git-client dependency is not automatically “shaded”, or statically added into the tacocat.hpi artifact when it is built, Jenkins must be instructed to fetch and install git-client.hpi when tacocat.hpi is installed.

The Jenkins project has tooling to add special plugin dependency information to the tacocat.hpi file, which is really a .jar, in the META-INF/MANIFEST.MF. Additional tooling behind the scenes processes that information from the released tacocat.hpi artifact, and generates the “Update Center”, which is itself a periodically updated .json file listing all the latest released versions of plugins. Among other information, the Update Center references the dependencies by the plugin’s name and version. For example, the entry for tacocat might look something like the following:

"tacocat": {
  "buildDate": "Sep 27, 2018",
  "version": "0.2",
  "dependencies": [
      "name": "git-client",
      "optional": false,
      "version": "1.0"

The version field is the version of the dependency specified way back at the beginning in the pom.xml as a build-time dependency. Unfortunately, the Update Center only includes the latest versions of all released plugins, not the history of plugins. This means that this same .json file will contain the git-client entry, but only for the latest (2.7.3) version.

While this has clearly worked for the Jenkins project for a long time, there are a number of technological and cultural issues with this approach.

The problems

Untested combinations

Perhaps the most notable problem is the “take the latest dependency” approach Jenkins utilizes in the Update Center. In the tacocat example above, I intentionally referenced git-client at version 1.0. This means that when I build and test tacocat locally, I will be grabbing the 1.0 version of git-client.

The latest git-client in the Update Center is version 2.7.3. This means that when a new Jenkins user installs the Taco Cat plugin, they will be effectively running an untested version combination of git-client 2.7.3 and tacocat 0.2

If an existing Jenkins user, with git-client 2.0.1 installs the Taco Cat plugin, they too will be running an untested version combination with git-client 2.0.1 and tacocat 0.2. And so it goes for every possible version of git-client which is used in the wild from version 1.0 to 2.7.3.

Least possible dependency

Culturally the Jenkins project trends very conservative with dependency management and upgrades. Many developers view plugin dependencies as a simply build-time concern and apply a principle of taking the least possible dependency. In practice this means that if the git-client plugin introduced the API needed for the Taco Cat plugin in 1.0, then the pom.xml for tacocat should specify that version, regardless of what improvements, bug fixes, or security issue have been addressed in the git-client plugin in the interim.

Since build-time dependencies translate to run-time dependencies, this means a user is allowed to have git-client 1.0 and install the newer Taco Cat plugin, regardless of what critical fixes have been made in the subsequent releases of the git-client plugin. Fortunately for that user however, they would actually be running a tested version combination.

While I understand the build-time perspective regarding bumping dependency versions, in my opinion this behavior betrays a serious lack of appreciation for how Jenkins plugins are consumed as part of a greater system.

In a cursory examination of plugin dependency relationships, I found numerous plugins which specified dependencies with versions containing known security issues. As much as I would hope that all installations of Jenkins are applying the appropriate security updates, the behavior of allowing users to receive features and updates to some areas of Jenkins such as Blue Ocean or Pipeline, without requiring the upgrade of insecure dependencies, is not satisfactory.

Opportunity for destabilization

The most commonly encountered problem with the current approach to dependency management is the sibling of “Untested combinations” wherein two plugins in the environment depend on two incompatible versions of the same dependency. Jenkins plugins are loaded in a manner similar to shared libraries such that only one version of git-client will be loaded into the JVM at a time. Any plugins which depend on git-client, must all be happy with whatever version is loaded, regardless of what their META-INF/MANIFEST.MF declares.

For some users, this can lead to upgrades proving hazardous. There is no guarantee that plugins follow Semantic Versioning, or any other sane versioning scheme for that matter, it is entirely possible to see API incompatible changes made in point-releases of some plugins. (Users of Docker Pipeline may recall some unhappy changes to ENTRYPOINT behavior in 1.15).

Problems with incompatible plugins typically manifest in one of three behaviors:

  1. Jenkins is bricked and won’t start up.
  2. Jenkins logs an error that it cannot load one of the plugins, and continues to operate without that plugin’s functionality present.
  3. Some functionality at the seams between plugins, which previously worked, no longer works properly.

None of these is particularly desirable, and the burden of diagnosing what the heck went wrong is left solely on the user’s shoulders.

Jenkins is presently developed as a series of components, some of which are loosely coupled, others less so.

Jenkins is used as a comprehensive system.

I believe that the current approach to plugin dependency management has led to a subpar user experience, and though it has been part of why Jenkins flourished organically over the past decade, in recent years the technological and cultural infrastructure behind it is no longer sufficient to keep Jenkins competitive.

How Jenkins Evergreen works

Jenkins Evergreen is a curated and automatically updating distribution of Jenkins core and plugins. It is important to highlight that Evergreen is not something different from what Jenkins is today, but rather new packaging with some nice auto-update functionality to boot.

In its current implementation, Jenkins Evergreen is defined by a “Bill of Materials” which describes the exact version combination of core and plugins will be installed in the Jenkins environment.

The Bill of Materials is described in a file called essentials.yaml which contains two relevant sections spec and status. In the spec block, we describe the plugins which contain the features deemed necessary for Jenkins Evergreen. The status block is then populated by our tooling based on the plugin dependencies outlined in the META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file described earlier. The tooling will resolve dependencies using the same “least possible dependency” approach, meaning that if a plugin declares a dependency on git-client 1.0, and no other plugin requires a later version, Evergreen will ship git-client 1.0 unless otherwise specified.

To further reduce potential incompatibilities or destabilization, Evergreen currently restricts the ability of a user to install additional plugins. This may strike some as a controversial approach, but in our early alpha testing we found it far too easy for testers to destabilize their Jenkins environment and are preferring a more curated approach for the moment.

One suggestion in the development of Evergreen’s tooling was to unilaterally pin our plugins to the latest released in the Update Center. This is similar to an approach I used for a project in 2017 called “Code Valet.” This sort of bleeding-edge approach is in fact quite bloody, and I ended up identifying a large number of low-severity bugs by being the first person to ever encounter the combination of plugin versions Code Valet was shipping. Great to find the bugs, but shifts a significant testing overhead to the integrator (me).

For better or worse, Evergreen is trusting the versions which plugin developers are declaring to have been tested and built against.

What would be better

Whether via Evergreen, or a traditional installation, Jenkins is used as a coherent system, regardless of how it may be developed or delivered. To better serve this end, I believe changes should be made in how this system is developed.

Forgetting for a moment the technical complexity of any of these suggestions, I think Jenkins would be much better with:

  1. Plugin isolation: if my Taco Cat plugin really only ever says “give me git-client 1.0, then at runtime, that’s exactly what should be provided. This would certainly bloat the memory footprint of Jenkins, but I can imagine a number of optimizations to lower that memory usage.

  2. Automatic upgrade of pom.xml for security fixes: if the Taco Cat plugin depends on a known-vulnerable-version of a specific plugin, we should have GitHub-based automation to propose, and perhaps even merge, a change to the pom.xml bumping that dependency to a known-safe-version.

  3. Entire-system testing: There has already been some work done by Oliver Gondza and others with the acceptance-test-harness work, which should be broadened to be used for plugins and their pull requests. A plugin like git-client is so fundamentally important to the usage of any Jenkins installation these days, that pull requests should be blocked if changes to git-client break the system. (Note: git-client is typically very well tested and maintained, I’m only picking on it as an example).

  4. Shed the culture of least possible dependency: Rather than thinking about dependencies in pom.xml files as build time dependencies, thinking about them as run-time dependencies, and of the user who will be running them. If the git-client plugin provides very useful features in version 2.0 or later, each maintainer of a plugin which depends on it, should strongly consider upgrading their pom.xml declarations. Not because their plugin necessarily requires newer APIs, but because users should be encouraged to adopt the latest bug fixes and features.

  5. Encourage plugin squashing: A large amount of complexity stems from a culture of putting everything into its own plugin, as if Jenkins plugins must follow Unix-style idioms. Jenkins Pipeline is particularly troublesome in this regard. For many plugin suites, or sets of related plugins, there’s not any user benefit from the fragmentation of functionality across multiple plugins where they may end up with untested combinations of related plugins. In many cases, a single plugin in the suite is functionally unusabe without the others also present. These suites of plugins should be squashed together wherever possible.

  6. Report and receive plugin health metrics: The Update Center is fundamentally static today, but users would be much better served if the updates interaction between a Jenkins instance and the project’s services were more “live.” By reporting plugin health, or installation success, associated with the versions installed in the Jenkins instance, we would be able to surface useful information to users. Showing users whether a certain plugin version is known to break in their version of Jenkins, or perhaps conflicts with existing versions of other plugins, would help avoid numerous users falling into the same broken-plugin tar pits.

I am by no means zealous about fixing the plugin issues in the Jenkins ecosystem specifically. It is not the area of the project which I love to hack on. I am zealous however about fixing the experience users encounter with Jenkins overall. As of today, I see the plugin ecosystem as the biggest double-edged sword we have to contend with in the project. Through our plugin ecosystem users can extend Jenkins to meet all sorts of disparate needs. Through our plugin ecosystem users can also easily find themselves with broken environments.

That is not a “user error”, that is a “Jenkins error.” And one we must fix.